What You need to know 
about Infertility . . .
The Definition of Infertility/subfertility

This is defined as failure to achieve conception after 12 months of regular and unprotected sexual intercourse. At this stage fertility investigations should be done to assess the cause of the problem. In women with irregular periods or are older than 35 years investigations should be started after 6 months. Subfertility affects about 10% couples.

The Causes of

The cause may be related to one partner or both partners. The cause of Infertility can be due to a  male factor(40%) or  female factor(40%). In 10% percent of the couples there are   combined  male and female factors and in another  10%  the  couples have unexplained infertility(no cause found). 

Conception and pregnancy is a complicated process that depend on a number of factors including: 

- The production of healthy sperm by the man-Healthy eggs produced by the women 

- Open fallopian tubes that allow the sperm and the egg to meet 

- The sperms ability to fertilize the egg

- Ability of the fertilized egg to become a good quality embryo-Capability of that embryo to implant to the uterus

Causes of infertility include:

- Male (sperm) factor

- Ovulation disordersTubal disease

- Endometriosis

- Sexually transmitted disease

- Anatomical factors such as fibroids and other uterine abnormalities

- Factors such as antibodies to sperm may also reduce the ability to conceive

- Combination of male and female factors



Years in Operation
Lives Touched
Babies Delivered

Treatment By 

Fertility Experts


The assessment and treatment of couples with fertility problems is best done by fertility specialists – people who are used to performing advanced endoscopic surgery and IVF (in vitro fertilization). The reason for this is that they will have the necessary experience and equipment needed for your therapy. All the correct treatment options can also be discussed outlining which procedure would be best for you. Sometimes the investigations may be done in conjunction with your referring gynaecologist.

What happens at your first appointment with the fertility specialist?

A detailed history will be taken from both you and your partner to find possible reasons for the fertility problem. A gynaecological examination will be done and a pelvic ultrasound scan performed. The male partner may also be examined to look for any urological problems and a sperm test permormed.

Starting the fertility treatment

Once a diagnosis has been made, the treatment will be started immediately. The doctor will advise you when to see him at the start of a period to commence treatment.   

Infertility investigations

The investigations will be done according to the likely causes of the fertility problem. They may include:

1.  Semen analysis for the male partner

2. Day 3 Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH), Luteinizing Hormone(LH), AMH, Prolactin, Testosterone, Thyroid function tests.

3.Day 21 progesterone (to assess for ovulation)

4. infection screen to include H.I.V TEST(If already positive Viral load test), syphilis test, Hepatitis screen and Rubella viral screen

5. Additional tests will be requested depending on the history and examination findings and the type of treatment needed.

6. Assessment of the pelvis will include a hysteroscopy and laparoscopy (to check the uterine cavity, fallopian tubes and the pelvis for endometriosis or scar tissue). A hysterosalpingogram X-ray may also be requested.